President Ike's speech
Little Rock Nine
Define the word stereotype
How does our identity shape the way we see ourselves and others?
To whatextent does our identity influence the choices we make?
Who are you ?
Create an identity chart or web use words to describe yourself and share with a partner
Writing Prompts for Little Rock Nine
Study this photograph carefully . If you were to write an article using this photograph what would it say ? To whom would you address this article ? What the message be ?
Civil Rights Movement Assignment
How do the choices people make , individually and collectively shape America ?
The Little Rock Nine
1.Students will be able to support their response to the question by using evidence gathered through one of the school media center's research databases examining school segregation during the Civil Rights Movement evaluating the Little Rock Nine. Students will follow a research rubric with at least 80% accuracy after a mini-lesson.
2. By the end of the lesson,SW explore historical documents movie clip, podcast and writing prompts to deepen their understanding of the context surrounding the murder of Emmett Till. SW focus on four key themes: Jim Crow racial segregation, the rise of the media, the impact of World War II, and the precedent of civil rights activism. SW select a writing prompt on the Murder of Emmett Till a Pivotal Moment in Civil Rights citing sources following a rubric with accuracy , after whole group instruction.
Little Rock Nine
The Challenge to Social Segregation
By the time of the Little Rock incident, the nation had already become aware of the heightened struggle in the South. In 1955 blacks in Montgomery, Ala., organized a boycott of city buses in protest of the policy of segregated seating. Lasting 381 days, the boycott, instigated by Rosa Parks, succeeded in integrating the seating. It also led to the formation in 1957 of the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC), in Atlanta, Ga., as a national organization presided over by a local black minister, Martin Luther King, Jr. As SCLC head, he would later become a central leader in the larger civil rights movement.
A major incident in 1960 led to the founding of another important organization and expanded the movement's participants to include college-age blacks. In that year, four students from the all-black North Carolina Agricultural and Technical College initiated sit-ins at a segregated Woolworth's lunch counter in Greensboro, N.C. Students from other southern black colleges and universities followed with similar sit-ins, bringing about the desegregation of several hundred lunch counters. During the sit-ins the young protesters organized the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee.
Soon thereafter, many SNCC members joined forces with the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE). Founded in Chicago in the 1940s, CORE organized the Freedom Rides of 1961. Black and white Freedom Riders boarded commercial buses in Washington, D.C., and embarked on a route through the South to test the 1960 Supreme Court decision Boynton v. Virginia, which had outlawed segregation in interstate transportation terminals. Although riders were beaten, arrested, and in one instance had their bus burned, the Freedom Rides were ultimately successful, prompting the Interstate Commerce Commission to enforce the ruling in Boynton.
The SNCC also organized local campaigns with NAACP branches to win voting rights for blacks and to end segregation in public places. One community that made the national spotlight was Albany, Ga. In 1962, Martin Luther King, Jr., and the SCLC entered the Albany struggle, which failed to gain significant results and branded King with a humiliating defeat.
The national spotlight then turned to Birmingham, Ala. Since 1956, the Rev. Fred Shuttlesworth of the Alabama Christian Movement for Human Rights had been leading the struggle against racial discrimination there. For decades, local blacks had faced a staunch segregationist in the person of Eugene "Bull" Connor, the city's commissioner of public safety, who was chiefly responsible for Birmingham's reputation as the "most thoroughly segregated city in the United States." King arrived in the spring of 1963 and with Shuttlesworth led nonviolent demonstrations. Connor's use of police dogs and fire hoses against protesters, an act that remains infamous, helped awaken President John Kennedy's administration to the need for civil rights legislation.
Following Kennedy's assassination, President Lyndon Johnson maneuvered the Civil Rights Act of 1964 through Congress. Representing a major victory for African Americans, the 1964 legislation outlawed segregation in public places and prohibited racial and gender discrimination in employment practices.
View and respond to this interview
In what sense is this interview confusing? In her view, why does she feel African American as an identity?
Do you agree with her assessment?
APA Tutorial Video
Emmett Till Civil Rights Movement
Define the word Stereotype
Who are you ?
What does it mean for an event to be pivotal?
why the murder of Emmett Till gained national attention. Indeed, in many cities, news of Emmett Till’s murder was front-page news.
Create an identity chart use words to describe yourself and share with a partner .
View the Movie Clip and respond to the questions
When was Emmett Till murdered?
Where did it happen?
Where was the trial?
Do you think Emmett Till and his friends were aware of these consequences before they acted ?
Writing Prompts for Emmett Till
Many people believe that the murder of Emmett Till was a pivotal moment in civil rights history. African Americans had been lynched before without causing a national outcry; why did the murder of Emmett Till have such a significant impact on many Americans?
How did the historical context—the United States in the 1950s—contribute to the impact of the murder of Emmett Till? What aspects of the historical context most contributed to the lasting impact of this event?
Analyzing a quote
I thought about Emmett Till, and I could not go back. My legs and feet were not hurting, that is a stereotype. I paid the same fare as others, and I felt violated. I was not going back. —Rosa Parks, civil rights activist
Graphic Organizer for Writing
Debrief and Evaluation
Did you change your opinion about the murder of Emmitt Till ?
Did you it find surprising or difficult to to understandstand the outcome of the Little Rock Nine ?
3. What is self-segregation? How is it like the segregation of the past? How is it different?